如何升级老迈的Mac到macOS Catalina

不久前macOS Catalina 10.15正式版发布,想到还有一台吃灰许久的Mac mini 2011mid,这个老机器我已经替换了SSD硬盘,加了内存,日常浏览网页也不觉得吃力。再加上从前用这台机器做过业余私活赚过些许外快,也有些感情。也许可以升级到最新的macOS? 但是在App Store中直接安装macOS Catalina却得到了此机型已经不被支持的提示,大失所望。macOS Catalina仅支持这些机型:
  • MacBook (Early 2015 or newer)
  • MacBook Air (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • MacBook Pro (Mid 2012 or newer)
  • Mac mini (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac (Late 2012 or newer)
  • iMac Pro (2017)
  • Mac Pro (Late 2013 or newer)
那么我的老机器是不是永远的停留在High Sierra呢?倒也不是无法可想。有个叫macOS Catalina Patcher的软件可以对安装包打个补丁,从而达到老树开新芽的目的。

开始升级Mac mini 2011mid到macOS Catalina

  • 下载macOS Catalina Patcher
  • 确认磁盘格式为APFS
  • 运行Patcher
  • 在下一屏,选择”Download a Copy”. 如果已经下载好了则可以选择”Browse a Copy..”
  • 下载需要等待一些时间,大概8G左右。下载完成后,可以选择制作启动盘或者直接升级,由于这台老机器并不常用,所以我毫无压力的选择了直接升级
  • 现在弹出提示,由于启用了SIP(System Integrity Protection),无法升级,需要重启到恢复模式(macOS Recovery)禁用SIP。
  • 选择重启电脑,并按住Command+R键不放,此时顺利进入恢复模式
  • 在恢复模式中的顶部菜单条选择Terminal,并输入 csrutil disable , 重启机器
  • 重启完成后再次打开Patcher -> “Browse a Copy”并选中上次已经下载的”Install macOS Catalina”安装包 -> 直接升级
  • 等待安装,期间会重启数次,升级完成。这个过程中与正常的升级体验并无二致
  • 体验macOS Catalina

遗留问题

  • 第一次初始化时卡住了较长时间,再次重启后此问题消失不见

Install semantic-ui by yarn

semantic-ui has some interactive installation step that Yarn does not support.

Install semantic-ui with macOS

yarn global add gulp
yarn add semantic-ui --ignore-scripts
cd ./node_modules/semantic-ui/
gulp install

Go back to semantic directory and start build

cd ../../semantic
gulp build

在macOS下安装aria2并自动启动RPC

什么是Aria2?

Aria2 is a lightweight download software with Multi-Connection support. Besides HTTP(s) and FTP, it also supports BitTorrent and Metalink.

安装Aria2

最简单的方法是采用homebrew安装aria2

brew install aria2

配置RPC自启动

  • 新增文件并编辑 /usr/local/opt/aria2/homebrew.mxcl.aria2.plist, 内容如下
<!--?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?-->
<plist version="1.0">
    <dict>
<key>Label</key>
<string>homebrew.mxcl.aria2</string>
<key>ProgramArguments</key>
<array>
<string>/usr/local/opt/aria2/bin/aria2c</string>
<string>--enable-rpc=true</string>
<string>--rpc-secret=yoursecret</string>
<string>--rpc-allow-origin-all=true</string>
<string>--rpc-listen-all=true</string>
</array>
<key>RunAtLoad</key>
<true/>
<key>KeepAlive</key>
<true/>
</dict>
</plist>
  • 然后用homebrew启动这个service,默认端口是6800
brew services start aria2

About ESP8266 module

How to detect the flash size of ESP8266 module?

  • Install latest esptool from GitHub or with pip
  • Wire ESP8266 module with a programmer
  • Run command
esptool.py flash_id

You should get some information about the flash of ESP8266 module

esptool.py v2.6-beta1
Found 2 serial ports
Serial port /dev/cu.SLAB_USBtoUART
Connecting........_
Detecting chip type... ESP8266
Chip is ESP8266EX
Features: WiFi
MAC: 18:fe:34:9f:5a:0a
Uploading stub...
Running stub...
Stub running...
Manufacturer: c8
Device: 4013
Detected flash size: 512KB
Hard resetting via RTS pin...
  • So the flash size is 512KB

Discourse维护笔记

版本升级

cd /var/discourse
git pull
./launcher rebuild app

磁盘空间清理

每次升级discourse版本,都会build一个新的docker image,下载discourse/base的image,那么进行清理很有必要。

launcher cleanup是discourse内建的一个清理程序,安全且有效

cd /var/discourse
/var/discourse# ./launcher cleanup 

The following command will
- Delete all docker images for old containers
- Delete all stopped and orphan containers

Are you sure (Y/n): Y
Starting Cleanup (bytes free 26462384)
Finished Cleanup (bytes free 37250136)

在清理前,磁盘空间已使用19G

/var/discourse# df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vda1        50G   19G   28G  41% /

清理后,腾出来7G的空间,对于小容量的VPS来说,相当可观。这个主要是清理掉了一些无用的docker image

/var/discourse# df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/vda1        50G   12G   36G  24% /

邮件发送

之前临时使用腾讯的企业邮件来发送discourse邮件,在用户数量略多一点之后,发送就很难成功了。可以使用mailgun代替

My hackintosh build

High Sierra 10.13.5

Components

  • i3 8100
  • ASUS h110m-k d3 MATX board (Add micro code to BIOS, support i3 8100)
  • 8G x 2 DDR3 1600 RAM (For AMD only)
  • Micron 1100 256 GB Solid State Drive
  • Huntkey SUPER 400N 300 Watt SMPS
  • Fenvi FV-T919 BCM94360 WiFi/Bluetooth PCI-E card

The build use integrated graphics Intel UHD 630. The Fenvi FV-T919 card can be driven directly without any changes. I can use my old apple keyboard and trackpad perfectly.

Update BIOS for ASUS motherboard

ASUS h110m-k d3 can’t support i3 8100 directly. But I bought the motherboard from taobao and the seller changed the BIOS to ASRock motherboard already. The motherboard can work with i3 8100 directly but many options are missed for ASUS motherboard T_T

I re-flashed another BIOS file from here. Please note: the default CPU core voltage is too high for i3 8100 in the new BIOS. I change it to 1.040 volt.

BIOS

See the section “Recommended BIOS Settings” at tonymacx86

For iGPU i3 8100, add the bios option

  • Graphics Configuration → DVMT Pre-Allocated : 128MB

The Installation

I followed the Installation Guide at tonymacx86. I used UniBeast to create a bootable High Sierra install on a 16GB USB drive to both format the internal SSD and install macOS.

Options for UniBeast:

  • PCI Devices
    • USB Ownership
    • USB InjectAll

Problem: The USB keyboard and mouse can’t work at the installation screen. I copied the USBInjectAll.kext to /EFI/CLOVER/Kexts/Other and it works again.

Post installation for MultiBeast

  • UEFI Boot mode
  • Drivers > Audio > Realtek ALCxxx > ALC887/888b
  • Drivers > Misc > FakeSMC
  • Drivers > Network > Realtek > RealtekRTL8111 v2.2.2
  • Drivers > USB > Remove XHCI USB port limit
  • Drivers > USB > USBInjectAll
  • Graphics > Intel Graphics Fixup
  • SMBIOS: 17,1

For Intel UHD 630 graphics:

I copied drivers from RehabMan

EFI/CLOVER/Kexts/Other:

  • AppleIntelKBLGraphicsFramebufferInjector_3e9x.kext
  • FakePCIID_Intel_HD_Graphics.kext
  • FakePCIID.kext
  • IntelGraphicsFixup.kext
  • Lilu.kext
  • Shiki.kext

Edit config.plist with Clover Configurator

  • Bootflag: shikigva=1
  • Devices/FakeID/IntelGFX: 0x3E928086
  • Graphics: Inject Intel – Empty ig-platform-id
  • SMBIOS: 17,1

Problem

  • Sleep: Can’t wake from sleep mode

Files

Update From 10.13.6 To 10.14.0

  • Install latest Lilu.kext and WhatEverGreen.kext
  • Install Multibeast 11 (not available yet)
  • Remove:
    • FakePCIID_Intel_HD_Graphics.kext
    • AppleIntelKBLGraphicsFramebufferInjector_3e9x.kext
    • IntelGraphicsFixup.kext
    • Shiki.kext
    • Bootflag: shikigva=1
    • Devices/FakeID/IntelGFX: 0x3E928086
  • Install Mojave from App Store
  • Follow the link Mojave AppleHDA Audio to remove old realtekALC and install AppleALC

Update From 10.14 To 10.15

  • I added a RX560 for support multiple monitors
  • Install latest Lilu, WhatEverGreen and AppleALC
  • Disable the UHD 630 in BIOS
  • Install Catalina from App Store

Migrate from MediaWiki to GitBook

Export data from MediaWiki

Using ‘Special:Export’ to export all pages at MediaWiki

  • Go to Special:Allpages and choose the desired article/file.
  • Copy the list of page names to a text editor
  • Put all page names on separate lines. I did this job with Vim.
  • Go to Special:Export and paste all your page names into the textbox, making sure there are no empty lines.
  • Click ‘Submit query’
  • Save the resulting XML to a file using your browser’s save facility.

Now you can use this XML file to next step

Convert MediaWiki documents to markdown format

We have a big XML file now. It contains all pages in MediaWiki. All the pages are in MediaWiki format. pandoc tool can convert the format to markdown directly. But pandoc can’t parse XML file.

I use tool MediaWiki to Markdown to do the job. It’s written in PHP. The conversion uses an XML export from MediaWiki and converts each wiki page to an individual markdown file.

The tool is easy to use. An example convert all pages to Github Flavoured Markdown format.

php convert.php --filename=mediawiki.xml --output=export --format=gfm 

Import data to GitBook

I got many md files in previous step.

  • Create two folders en and zh for multiple languages support
  • Copy all md files to the two folders. Cleanup files for each language.
  • Copy Main_Page.md to SUMMARY.md. It’s the index file for gitbook. I rewrited this file carefully.
  • Create languages file for gitbook
* [English](en/)
* [Chinese](zh/)
  • Create book file for gitbook, Content for book.json.
{
    "plugins": [
        "language-selected",
        "expandable-chapters-small", 
        "-search", 
        "-livereload", 
        "-fontsettings", 
        "-lunr", 
        "-sharing"
    ]
}
  • Install gitbook and preview

Rewrite rule for nginx

I wrote these rewrite rules for nginx. It make the new URLs compatible with original MediaWiki.

        rewrite ^/wiki/Main_Page$ /_book/index.html last;
        rewrite ^/index.html$ /_book/index.html last;
        rewrite ^/gitbook/(.+)$ /_book/gitbook/$1 last;
        rewrite ^/wiki/(.+).html$ /en/$1.html permanent;
        rewrite ^/wiki/(.+)$ /en/$1.html permanent;

        location /en/ {
                try_files $uri /_book$uri /_book$uri.html;
        }

        location /zh/ {
                try_files $uri /_book$uri /_book$uri.html;
        }

Miscs

I have many markdown files from original MediaWiki. It’s too sad gitbook can’t process markdown file outside the SUMMARY.md. You can find more peoples have same problem at the repo of Gitbook. I use the workground to resolve the problem.

DA14580 advertises to a specify channel

For BLE, Channels 37, 38, and 39 are used only for sending advertisement packets. DA14580 advertises at channel 37, 38 and 39 in the example project from Dialog. But sometimes we need it advertises to a specify channel.

Here are the channel define In the file co_bt.h

///Advertising channels enables
enum adv_channel_map
{
  ///Byte value for advertising channel map for channel 37 enable
  ADV_CHNL_37_EN = 0x01,
  ///Byte value for advertising channel map for channel 38 enable
  ADV_CHNL_38_EN,
  ///Byte value for advertising channel map for channel 39 enable
  ADV_CHNL_39_EN = 0x04,
  ///Byte value for advertising channel map for channel 37, 38 and 39 enable
  ADV_ALL_CHNLS_EN = 0x07,
  ///Enumeration end value for advertising channels enable value check
  ADV_CHNL_END
};

Here’s the code to let DA14580 advertises to channel 37

#define APP_ADV_CHMAP ADV_CHNL_37_EN

....

struct gapm_start_advertise_cmd *cmd;
....
cmd->channel_map = APP_ADV_CHMAP;

Simple script for J-Link RTT viewer

I debug NRF52 chip with JLink real time terminal. It’s pretty to use J-Link RTT viewer on my macOS. For example, I ran this command for open a RTT viewer window.

you@yourcomputer:~$JLinkExe -device nRF52 -speed 4000 -if SWD -autoconnect 1

SEGGER J-Link Commander V5.10u (Compiled Mar 17 2016 19:06:22)
DLL version V5.10u, compiled Mar 17 2016 19:06:19

Connecting to J-Link via USB...O.K.
Firmware: J-Link OB-SAM3U128-V2-NordicSemi compiled Mar 15 2016 18:03:17
Hardware version: V1.00
VTref = 3.300V


Type "connect" to establish a target connection, '?' for help

We can use JLinkRTTClient to check the RTT output. But sometimes JLinkRTTClient will not reconnect if the JLinkExe reopened. A simple script can do this job

while true; do nc localhost 19021; sleep 2; done;

I’ve written this line in my makefile.

Install extension for macOS built-in PHP

macOS High Sierra 10.13.3 ships with PHP 7.1.7. I’m trying to install an extension for the built-in PHP. I tried the pecl command but no lucky because SIP (System Integrity Protection) protection. I can’t add file under the directory /usr/lib/php that default php extension directory.

It’s a little difficult but I installed an extension success by compiling manually

Prepare

  • Install packages
brew install autoconf pcre
  • Download PHP source files for built-in PHP
xcode-select --install
  • Edit the /etc/php.ini, change the extension_dir to /usr/local/lib/php/extensions. The directory is writable. You should make the directory yourself.
  • Copy all extension files from /usr/lib/php/extensions to /usr/local/lib/php/extensions
  • Download the extension file and compile it
  • Edit /usr/bin/php-config, find line
extension_dir='/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20090626'

and replace it with

extension_dir='/usr/local/lib/php/extensions'

Compile extension

For example, I compile swoole extension with these steps.

  • Download swoole-2.1.1.tgz from pecl.php.net
  • Unzip the file and compile the extension
tar xzvf swoole-2.1.1.tgz
cd swoole-2.1.1
phpize
./configure
make
make install